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Expect a ramping up of this activity ahead of elections this year. YouTube has implemented new measures to counter conspiracy videos and false news. YouTube is also attacking economic incentives by marking problematic videos un-monetisable and enlisting prominent YouTubers to help with digital literacy. Twitter has clamped down on fake accounts and introduced new ways of identifying bots impersonating humans. Twitter now challenges around 9m accounts a week that it suspects could be automated to prove that there is a human behind them.

In the US mid-term elections it removed over 10, accounts and introduced a new labelling system for official candidates. Senior leader at a top US publisher. The Indonesian government has set up a war room of 70 engineers 22 and has threatened to block Facebook entirely if things get out of hand.

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Meanwhile in India a rise of intolerance and religious hatred has coincided with the rapid growth of social media. Political parties and other activists have set up thousands of WhatsApp groups in order to spread messages, many of which will be hard to monitor openly. Nutrition labels for news: Social and search platforms as well as other aggregators will place increasing focus in on the credibility and track record of a publisher when making decisions on what to show. This has already proved one of the most effective ways of down-ranking false news, but this year we may start to see more systematic approaches gaining traction.

Why Nonprofit Transitions Fail

Around news sites have started to display trust indicators on their pages, with links to detailed policies on ethics, fact-checking and corrections. It is hoped that these will provide some objective standards to separate reputable news sites from unreliable ones. Newsguard is a new venture that aims to rate as green or red every significant site in the United States.

These labels are created by a human researcher and to that extent are open to biases. Expect to see more labelling initiatives in , though they will inevitably be subject to partisan attack and may struggle to scale and keep up-to-date. Platforms are pursuing their own media rating initiatives and will be looking for solutions that scale across countries and languages. Deep fakes: With sophisticated video manipulation technology now openly available many fear a new wave of misinformation.

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Software such as Fake App has made the technology easy to apply for those with basic programming skills — not least with free tutorials readily available on YouTube. Deep fakes have also been widely used to insert celebrities into pornography and to add the actor Nicolas Cage into movie scenes.

Expect a proliferation of deep fakes in including the first attempts to deploy these powerful technologies to literally put words into the mouths of political opponents. Overall, we can expect new threats to emerge as fast as old problems get fixed. Removing or demoting unreliable sources, raising digital literacy, improving journalistic standards and better labelling will all help but lasting solutions will require platforms, publishers and governments to work together for years to come.

Our digital leaders survey shows publishers looking to diversify away from Facebook and towards other platforms this year. Despite this, most traffic remains trapped in an Apple controlled environment and advertising revenue remains limited. How important do you expect the following platforms to be for your news organisation in ? Subscription businesses, especially those from Nordic countries, were more likely to rate Google higher as were CEOs and Managing Directors. Google maxes out on importance because of its pervasiveness as both technology and audience provider, and their willingness to engage on some key topics that matter to our business.

The differences in ratings are partly a reflection of the lower number of referrals that publishers now get from Facebook following algorithm changes. But there also appears to be a change in sentiment toward third party platforms in general. Many publishers have been burned by creating bespoke content only to find the goalposts changing or the monetisation slow to materialise. Our platform approach is increasingly focused on bringing people back to us.

UK publisher, formerly with advertising model, now reader payment focus.

Subscription-based publishers are increasingly looking at social media as a marketing and acquisition channel, not primarily as a place to engage users with content. Others are prioritising channels on the basis of monetisation potential, which may explain why YouTube also scores well in our survey. Magazine brands are still finding value with Instagram and Snapchat, while local news providers still see social media as critical for traffic referral and for engagement.

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Even with the changes to the algorithm this year, Facebook continues to drive traffic to our sites with a speed and volume unmatched by other platforms. However we are seeing sharp rises in traffic from closed social networks such as WhatsApp. From feeds to stories and groups: The ephemeral story format has been around for a few years but Facebook says that stories will surpass feeds as the main way people share with friends within the next year.

WhatsApp status is also a story format, Netflix movie previews and YouTube have been experimenting with stories originally called reels and AMP stories debuted last year as an open web version that sits on top of some Google searches. These are now being surfaced in the Google News feed on Android devices — a distribution channel that will become more important this year.

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Many publishers have been increasingly focusing on Instagram stories. The Guardian , which has 1. Outside the US, Snapchat is finding growth difficult, which leaves the network looking for investment or even sale. Disney or Amazon could also be interested. Paid social networks: Suggestions that Facebook might offer an ad-free subscription version have been around for years, but it might just happen in The company already offers free and paid tiers for its enterprise social network Facebook at Work.

Platforms push further into video and TV: Online video is set to be a key battleground as platforms try to grab a share of the rapidly rising OTT over-the-top market. Apple has been building new entertainment studios in California and has been stockpiling shows for release in the spring or early summer. More relevant to news was the global launch of Facebook Watch in , part of its strategy to move into longer form video.


Along with IGTV Instagram TV these initiatives are part of a long-stated desire by Facebook to re-invent television in a more social and interactive way — and of course to take advertising dollars from incumbent players. Snapchat is also expanding its Shows feature to around 17 premium content partners in the UK 28 and will be creating a space for Shows and Snapchat Originals within the Discover portal. Video does provide publishers with new opportunities to diversify, not least because competing platforms should make the value of original content higher.

But as the experience of Mic. Duopoly becomes the triopoly: Amazon is becoming a growing force in the digital ad market. Research group eMarketer finds that consumers are increasingly starting product searches on Amazon rather than Google, enabling it to charge higher premiums. In the last year the policy debate has shifted from whether to regulate the internet, to how.

Germany got the ball rolling with the Network Enforcement Law coming into full effect at the start of , but it was widely criticised for incentivising over-blocking by platforms, including content posted by politicians. The problem is that there is no real consensus on the different problems to be addressed, never mind on how these could be solved. Platform responsibilities for online harm redefined — but how? Platforms that rely on user-generated content and algorithmic recommendations have long resisted the notion that they are publishers.

But they are now demonstrably facing up to their responsibility for the content they carry with the effort they are putting into identifying sexual grooming, bullying, terrorism, hate speech, undermining elections and other harmful behaviours. For their part, governments have also come to recognise that platforms are not utilities like telecoms nor are they publishers like newspapers. So this year we will see an attempt to define platforms as a distinct category of their own. Elsewhere, an Australian inquiry ACCC has also recommended overhauling media regulation to include internet and platform companies.

Governments need to truly understand the complexity of the digital landscape and lack the expertise to do so. Platforms will only come to the table when they are really under threat.

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That moment has not come to pass just yet. UK publisher. It is inevitable that there will be some level of regulation. Platforms, however, will want to proactively respond to head off regulation that could impact innovation or profits. Expect tech companies to offer more and clearer controls over data this year.

Copyright wrangles continue: Changes to EU copyright laws are complex, technical and have been going on for years, but some clauses are so controversial they have led Tim Berners Lee, the United Nations, a number of movie studios and four million ordinary Europeans to object. A similar piece of legislation in Spain led to Google News pulling out entirely leaving many smaller publishers worse off. Based on what happened when Germany passed a similar provision, some expect publishers to give major platforms the right to use snippets of content for free, but the details are unclear, as are the implications for large platforms, news aggregators and smaller start-ups and even news organisations that curate content from competitors.

Article 13 would essentially introduce automated checks of whether copyright had been infringed every time anyone publishes anything on the internet. Opponents say this is both impractical, expensive and dangerous — overprotecting dubious copyright claims and stunting creativity and innovation. Sharp declines in print revenue have hit the bottom line with digital unable to make up the difference.

Although online advertising is still growing fast, very little of that finds its way to publishers because giant tech platforms like Google and Facebook can target audiences more efficiently and with greater scale and have the volume to offer lower rates. And these winner-takes-all dynamics in the advertising market have hit digital-born brands in the last year with venture capitalists looking to firesale their media investments. Against this background, we have seen a pivot to paid content or at the very least a push for more diversified revenue streams.

In our survey the extent of this pivot has become clear. Main revenue focus in Which of the following digital revenue streams is MOST important for your company in ? Important revenue focus in Which of the following digital revenue streams are important or very important for your company in ? The differences between the two charts are illuminating.

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Display and native advertising remain important today but the key focus going forward is on building or strengthening businesses around subscription and donations. Subscriptions is the key strategy, so the investment in driving subscriptions will be critical in and probably to create a sustainable news business. For many publications this will require different skills, new metrics, and an emphasis on higher quality content that is worth paying for.

Some are learning about subscription for the first time, others have been building up their community for years:. We have more than 12, subscriptions, but growing subscriptions is not an easy task in a country where there is no culture of payment for digital content.