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Health risks caused by nickel connector in drinking water installations
Effects of wood species on electroconductivity and electromagnetic shielding properties of electrolessly plated sliced veneer with Nickel, Journal of Wood Science, 40 10 : — Zhang Yuping. Introduction about the materials for screening electromagnetic radiation and absorbing microwave [J]. Physics and engineering, 13 6 : 25— Zhang, Y. Structure and properties of electroless Ni deposits [J]. Zhao Fuchen. Development of electromagnetic shielding materials [J]. Journal of Development and Application of Materials, 16 5 : Personalised recommendations.
Cite article How to cite? ENW EndNote. Buy options. Because of the high magnetic permeability of nickel plating, the skin-effect resistance on the nickel-plated side back side of your conductor will be considerably higher than that on the bare-copper side front side, or pcb-facing side. You might be tempted to think that this will be OK because even with if the back side of the trace is messed up because of the nickel plating you've still got a good copper surface on the front pcb-facing side of the trace.
Working by analogy to Figure 1, if the front-side surface acts in parallel with the nickel-plated side, even if the nickel-plated resistance becomes infinite the overall resistance of the configuration can never exceed the resistance of the front side alone. Unfortunately the parallel-resistances idea is a very bad analogy.
At high frequencies, current distributes itself around the periphery of a trace in a pattern that minimizes the total inductance of the trace configuration without regard to the surface resistivity of the trace. The name of the particular effect that controls the distribution of current around the periphery of a conductor is the "Proximity Effect". If you change the surface resistivity of one side of the trace by plating it with Nickel , you hardly change the distribution of current around the periphery of trace.
A better circuit model for current flowing on the front and back surfaces of a microstrip traces involves two independant current sources, pre-set in a proportion of current mandated by the Proximity Effect Figure 2. The high-frequency behavior stands in marked contrast to the behavior of current at low frequencies.
At low frequencies, current distributes itself to minimize the total power dissipated in a conductor—the so-called, least resistive distribution. At high frequencies, current distributes itself to minimize inductive effects. Let's do a concrete example. Suppose you have two resistors, R1 and R2 , connected in parallel, as in Figure 1. These resistances represent the surface resistances of the front and back sides of a microstrip trace, respectively.
Give the two resistors each a value of two ohms. The overall parallel resistance of the circuit formed by their parallel combination then equals 1 ohm.
AT Size 16 stamped pin contact, nickel plated
Now, double the value of resistor R2 changing its value to 4 ohms. If you measure the currents, you will see more current flowing in R1, and less in R2, than before. By sharing the current, allowing it to flow in the most efficient manner, the least-resistive principle minimizes the total power dissipation. No matter how high you make the value of R2, the overall DC resistance of the parallel combination can never exceed R1.
The alligator lead that starts to bubble is your negative. It is definitely possible to buy different nickel salts online, but where is the fun in that?
NICKEL PLATED COPPER WIRE - Cu/Ni
Here, I'll show you to make your own nickel acetate solution for a lot cheaper than buying chemicals online. Fill your mason jar with distilled vinegar leaving about an inch from the top. Dissolve a pinch or so of salt into the vinegar. The amount of salt is not all that important as long as you don't go crazy with it. The purpose of the salt is to increase the electrical conductivity of the vinegar. The more current that flows through it, the faster we can dissolve the nickel.
Be careful though, too much current will lead to an over saturated solution which will lead to poor plating results. Use sparingly. Unlike in the copper plating instructable I've done, the nickel will not dissolve into the solution just by letting it sit for a while. We need to electro-dissolve the nickel.
https://pronapkoofi.tk Place two pieces of pure nickel into the vinegar and salt solution such that part of both stick out and into the air and that they don't touch. Connect an alligator lead from the positive terminal of your battery or a DC power supply to on of the nickel electrodes. Do the same from the negative terminal to the other electrode. Make sure that the alligator clips don't touch the vinegar so they don't contaminate the final product. The nickel source connected to the negative lead should start to create hydrogen bubbles and the positive lead should make oxygen bubbles.
Truth be told, a very minute amount of chlorine gas from the salt will also form on the positive lead, but unless you put in huge amount of salt or are using a lot of voltage, the chlorine will just dissolve into the water like what you find in a swimming pool. The minute amounts of sodium, in case you are wondering, will react with the water to create sodium hydroxide.
For this step, I very highly suggest using a DC power supply that plugs into the wall see the previous step. Dissolving the nickel will take a while and you don't want to drain your battery more than you need to - DC power supplies are reusable, most batteries are not.
After a little while mine took about two hours , you'll notice the solution has turned a light green.
Electroless Nickel Plating and Surface Technology
This is your nickel acetate solution! If you get blues, reds, yellows, or any other color, it means that your nickel source wasn't pure.
The end product should be a clear green - if cloudy, your have an impure nickel source. The solution and nickel sources may become warm during this process - this is normal. If they get hot to the touch, you should disconnect your circuit, let it cool for an hour, and repeat as necessary. It is possible that you added too much salt, which increases the current, which increases the power dissipated as heat. NOTE: Some materials, such as stainless steel, will not accept direct nickel plating. You will need to copper plate them first.
You don't want any grease, oxidation rust, tarnish, patina, ect , or general grime on your surface. Even if your surface looks clean, I can almost guarantee there is a fair amount of oxidation that needs to be removed. Remove general grime and dirt with a little bit of dish soap and elbow grease. Remove the oxidation and tougher grime with an acid-based abrasive such as Cameo. Don nitritle gloves and just mix the powder with a few drops of water on your glove and go to town! You can further clean your object by reverse electroplating ie "electrocleaning" it for a few seconds.
Hook your object up to a positive voltage, a wire to the negative voltage, and drop them both in a vinegar salt solution for seconds. This will remove any remaining oxidation. For larger surfaces, try scrubbing them with fine steel wool and vinegar. For this step, you want to use your 6V battery. Even lower voltages down to around 1V will give you a better, shinier, smoother finish.
You can use a higher voltage DC power supply for electroplating, but you won't get good results. Place a nickel source into your green nickel acetate solution and connect it to the positive lead of your battery with an alligator clip. Clip the other alligator clip to the object to be plated and connect it to the negative lead of your battery. Drop the object to be plated into the solution and wait for around 30 seconds.
Take it out, rotate degrees, and drop it back into the solution for another 30 seconds. Repeat as needed. You should move the alligator clip a new location after a couple dips so that the entire surface gets plated. Unlike in copper plating, the alligator clip shouldn't leave "burn" marks, just prevent the spot underneath from plating well. The plating process should create enough bubbles that you won't need to agitate or swirl your object in the electroplating solution. Now for post prep Generally speaking, NONE!
Nickel doesn't oxidize at room temperature and shouldn't tarnish. You can polish your end product with a light polish to get a bright gleam.